Although, the pragmatic language suggests to the nobility that there are large rewards to be gained. Moreover, the movement is constantly redefined by the different speeches and the aims extended each time. This links with the previous factor in that the guise of religion is used to justify the extension of the crusade. However, this causes issues because by the Fourth Crusade people are less motivated by the religious aspect and are consequently less tolerant of operating under the banner of religion and feel that they can dictate it by their personal desires and ambitions. By the Fourth Crusade, we see that the goal has been wildly redefined and all emotional resonance has been removed, thus causing a diversion in the crusades.
Additionally, we see each pope recognising the economical and political gains to come from Crusading.
Essay on Impact of the Crusades
Another factor which changed the nature and purpose of crusading was the role of papal legates and preachers. Although their ability to attract wide audiences and followers of the crusade may have been manipulated, their devoutly religious views remained at the heart of each crusade. We most definitely see a religious aspect to the First Crusade through the tactics and work of Adhemar; proclaiming a three-day fast, banning sex, gambling and swearing, his sermons were strictly adhered to by the most pious of the crusaders.
And when there was success, Adhemar was held accountable. His deeply pious nature illustrated that preachers who aimed to encourage people to join were, at this point, operating simply out of religious devotion, rather than any political gain. His role extended beyond encouraging men to join the crusade and subsequently we see the nature of crusading changing. His justification of the Knights Templars illustrates that the role of these papal legates and preachers was extending to a more political ambassador-like role for the papacy and the popes. The political power extended beyond legates and they could therefore utilise these devoutly religious monks and warriors to defend not only the cross, but also the fiefs which the papacy gained.
AQA A Level History 1A The Age of the Crusades c /1A - 06 Jun - The Student Room
This contrasted with the rule of the Imad ad-Din Zengi and Nur ad-Din who, to some extent, filled the power vacuum which was evident in the First Crusade. Although not completely effective in the Second Crusade, their clearly defined agenda laid the foundations for future Islamic crusader states and their subsequent leaders.
However, Christian fractions and disunity in the Second Crusade is also a reason for its failure and illustrates the changing nature and purpose. Whereas in the First Crusade there was a unified Christian front, by the Second Crusade there was a number of separate principalities with wildly different leaders who had opposing aims. With these leaders all opposing one another, the Muslim army could attack a weakened and demoralised army — or armies — who had no chance of defending themselves. Reports from the Siege of Damascus, for example, illustrates those in positions of power, notably Conrad, Raymond, and Thierry of Flanders, having issues with each other or local nobility, consequently leading to a magnanimous defeat as they focused on these disputes rather than the larger Muslim threat.
After the death of Nur ad-Din the Muslim world seemed to fall back into the same state before his rise, however, the role of Saladin drastically changed the nature and purpose of crusading. His strict devotion to jihad and his political astuteness meant that he had the ability to unite the newly disjointed Islamic world. He illustrated his tactical prowess by the ways in which he changed crusading, too. Attacking Jerusalem in an unorthodox manner, he was able to take the city and continue his vast expansion.
None of the crusaders were prepared for warfare in such a manner and were massacred on many occasions. However, there were other factors contributing the the rise of Saladin which made his success much easier. The Christian forces were led by a leper-king who perhaps may have had the political capabilities, but his illness caused him immense difficulties.
Additionally, the disastrous decision by Guy to march away from watered lands meant that Saladin could exploit the clearly disarrayed Christian army. For instance, although he offered a vast wealth and a large army, his agenda was one of political advancements, rather than in the First Crusade when it was primarily religious.
Saladin still maintained the prestige he had acquired over a long period of battling and so the Muslim world still remained, to some extent, unified, meaning that Richard — and the other nobility which followed him — had a difficult task. The evolution of crusading, as we can see, was immense. Throughout the Christian world, for example, it saw the invitation of nobility and consequently their lack of presence in their respective countries. University Life.
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The First Crusade, 1095-99: Essay Questions
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Chronicles of the Crusades Essay Topics & Writing Assignments
Careers advice. Talk relationships. EU Students. Further information. News forums. Entertainment forums. Other interests. Applying to uni? Started uni this year? Page 1 of 1. Go to first unread. Skip to page:. CoolCavy Volunteer Team. Badges: Report Thread starter 1 year ago 1. Hi guys! Who's taking the exam on The Age of the Crusades this year? How are you feeling about it?
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- “Speech of Urban II at the Council of Claremont, November 26, 1095”.
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Beyond the Bloodshed
Report 1 year ago 3. Original post by CoolCavy Hi guys! Report 1 year ago 4. I did the paper today! I thought the source question was fine, but the essays are really weird. I did not quite know how to argue the First Crusade strengthened Alexius position in Byzantine except for the conquest in Nicaea and recovery of coastal lines in Anatolia Bravobob Badges: 1.
Report 1 year ago 5. Original post by shdiheidhw I did the paper today! Report 1 year ago 6. Original post by Bravobob That was one of my points. The other points i mentioned was the refusal of Bohemund to return Antioch to Alexios as agreed in the prince's truce and his expansion into BE territory in , including attacks on Alexios which undermined his postion and put it under threat. The other point i made was that the Frankish settlement in the Near East and foundation of crusader states posed a huge threat to Alexios in the BE, already strains in their relationship through the 'schism' and Pope Urban's death which was Alexios' most important connection in bettering relations with the Latin west.
Again undermining and threatening his position as emperor of the BE in threat of Frankish expansion. Report 1 year ago 7.